Diabetes is a condition that results in a high level of sugar in the blood. Blood glucose is the main core of energy and comes from the food we consume. It is a chronic, autoimmune condition that occurs when body’s own immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, wherein the body doesn’t make enough or any insulin at all and glucose then remains in the blood and causes health problems called diabetes.
Different kinds of diabetes can occur in different people, and managing the condition depends on the type. Not all forms of diabetes occur from being overweight or leading an inactive lifestyle. In fact, some people suffer from diabetes from childhood.
Symptoms & causes of Diabetes
- Extreme thirst and urination.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Feeling tired
- Increase in hunger
- Dry mouth
- Blurry vision
- Wounds that do not heal faster
- Unusual weight loss or weight gain
- a history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- Genes and hereditary can also cause diabetes
- Certain medications also cause diabetes
- More than 45 years of age
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes takes palace when the blood sugar is too high. In this type 1, the body’s immune system which normally fights infection or bacteria has destroyed the insulin-making cells in the pancreas, without which the body is incapable of using sugar energy. As a result of which the pancreas stops making insulin, and without insulin, glucose can’t get into body cells and thus blood glucose builds up in the bloodstream more than usual. People who suffer from type1 diabetes need to inject insulin into their bodies each day. Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed at any age but mostly occurs in children and young adults. This is also known as juvenile diabetes.
Why is insulin required?
Insulin keeps the blood sugar level from getting too high or too low. It is a hormone made by the pancreas which allows using glucose from carbohydrates in the food that is consumed for energy. People with Type 1diabetes can’t make insulin and so require an injection to control the blood sugar levels. They need to be injected into the fatty tissues just below your skin like your abdomen, upper arm, hip or side of the thigh. These man-made insulin products replace the insulin that your body would normally make.
Treatment for Type 1 diabetes to maintain blood sugar levels – blood sugar testing, injecting insulin, therapy, healthy eating and diet and regular exercise.
Several types of insulin are available depending on the patient requirement:
- Rapid-acting: it works in 15 minutes after injecting, and continues to work for 3-4 hours.
- Regular or short-acting: it starts work in 30 minutes and continues for about 3-6 hours.
- Intermediate-acting: It does not get into the bloodstream for 2- 4 hours after injecting, but starts working for 12-18 hours
- Long-acting: After injecting it takes several hours to get into the body system, once it starts the effect last for about 24 hours.
These are only allowed to be consumed as per instructions from your doctor – No injection or medication should be taken through self-diagnosis as it could lead to greater health damage.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin and pancreas is not able to make enough, and sugar levels rise up in the blood. This type is more common in people older than 40 years.
The diagnosis for Type 2 diabetes
A1c Blood test: It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 months.
Fasting Blood test: It is done on an empty stomach, without eating anything for at least 8-10 hours. This helps in measuring blood sugar on an empty stomach.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): This test includes before and after consumption of sweet drink to see how the body handles the sugar.
Treatment for this type involves oral diabetic medication, insulin injection or therapy. There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but following a regular diet, regular exercise, maintaining weight can help in managing diabetes.